Requirement Traceability Matrix is a high-level matrix used to map and trace requirements with test cases. This matrix captures all requirements proposed by the client and accounted in a single document, delivered at the end of the software development also this method is a straightforward and can be easily done by anyone. It is a table that shows many too many relationships between requirements and test cases. RTM is also known as Traceability Matrix or Cross Reference Matrix. RTM are usually prepared by business analysts. RTM can be divided into three types i.e., forward traceability, backward traceability, and bidirectional traceability.
- Forward Traceability Matrix: It is used to map the requirements to test cases. This matrix ensures whether the project progress in the desired direction for right product. Under this matrix each requirements are tested thoroughly.
- Backward Traceability Matrix: It is used to map test cases to requirements. This matrix ensures that current product remains on right track. Under this matrix we are not adding additional functionality that is not mentioned in the requirements by doing so it aids in avoiding “scope creep” and tracking the initial requirements unnecessarily.
- Bi-directional Traceability: It is used to map requirements to test cases and test case to requirements. This matrix ensures that all specified requirements are covered by test cases and vice versa. Under this matrix it analyses the impact of change affected by a defect in product or vice versa.
The purpose of Requirement Traceability Matrix is
- To ensure all requirements defined for a product are tested.
- To validate that all requirements are checked.
- To provide a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
- To ensures that project goals are met in a simplified way.
- To determine project direction and timelines.
Advantage of Requirement Traceability Matrix
- It confirms 100% test coverage
- It allows to identify the missing functionality easily
- It allows to identify the test cases which needs to be updated if there is change in requirement.
- It is easy to track the overall defects or test execution status.
Requirement Traceability Matrix is created by
- Defining goals
- Gathering artifacts
- Creating matrix in Excel tool
- Copying and pasting requirements from requirement documents
- Copying and pasting test cases from Test case documents
- Copying and pasting Test results and Test Issues. (If available)
Parameters that needs to focused while preparing Requirement Traceability Matrix
- Requirement ID: A summary is given and shown is correct sequence for each design specification.
- Requirement Type: Classifying the functional requirement of the project.
- Requirement Description: A brief explanation of the prerequisite.
- Trace to Design Specification: The preparation of designs are necessary for the practical test process.
- Test scripts: The preparation of test scripts is necessary for the practical test process.
- Unit Test Cases Reference or Identification number
- Integration Test Cases Reference or Identification number
- System Test Cases Reference or Identification number
- User Acceptance Test Cases Reference or Identification number
Finally to make a simple matrix document, MS-Excel spreadsheet can be used. Now by creating columns for Business requirements, Functional requirements, Test cases, Test results and Bugs table can be created. Then, with each requirement ID, requirement can be recorded from Business requirement document.