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Root Cause Analysis (RCA)

A Root cause is a factor which hinders the smooth flow of the process and that causes the issue. The reoccurrence of the same issue over a period of time causes the problem.

So Root cause analysis is a collective term that describes a wide range of approaches, tools, and techniques used to uncover causes of the problems.


History of RCA


Root cause analysis (RCA) arose in the 1950s as a formal study by NASA to tackle the problems to its origins in the highly complex arena of rocket design, development and launch.




  1. RCA provides systematic process to examine the problems to the root causes, rather than rely on own or stakeholder’s assumption.
  2. RCA does not provide temporary quick solution, rather it take time to analyze but provide the permanent solution.
  3. RCA ensures the Quality Process and stakeholder’s satisfaction.




This technique has quite challenges as well, like

  1. Lack of knowledge of the people involved in finding the root cause.
  2. Lack of support from concerning personnel or team to find the answer to the question framed.


RCA process

  1. Identify the problem(s) outcome from the process.
  2. Identify the stakeholders associated with the process.
  3. Assessment of the problem(s)by using various techniques like interviews, focus groups, and document or record reviews—to collect information on the causal factors leading to the problem.
  4. Identify the root causes of the problem by RCA technique like Fish-bone Diagram, Cause-and-effect Diagram.
  5. Take corrective Action and documented.

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