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Root Cause Analysis

Root Cause Analysis: (RCA)

A root cause is a factor, due its occurrence the process is disturbed, and the desired output is not achieved or deviated due to this factor.

It is the reoccurrence of the same event over a period of time which hinders the smooth flow of the process.

So it is important to remove the occurrence of this factor to achieve a smooth flow of the process. To fix or remove this occurrence we need to find the root cause of the issue, which helps in finding a solution to the cause of the issue.

Has a Business Analyst it is important to perform Root cause analysis, and it is good to involve stakeholders while conducting the RCA.

RCA helps in finding out the exact reason of the problem. It has different techniques to achieve the detection of the root cause.


  • 5 WHY technique:

It is a question asking technique to get to the root of the problem/ issue. It is a process of investigation to find out the cause of the problem.

It is necessary to post a proper and a relevant question to achieve the findings of the issue.

  • Tabular Technique:

It is tabular representation with a list of actions of a running process, with a checklist.

In case of any failure or deviation in a particular action process, check mark the action list accordingly, and the check list will reveal the cause of the issue.

  • Fish Bone Diagram:

Fishbone diagram is also known as “Cause-and-Effect diagram” and also the “Ishikawa diagram”.

This diagram identifies the cause by defining the issue into 5 key areas.

  1. People
  2. Process.
  3. Machines
  4. Materials
  5. Environment

Fish bone diagram representation is given below:


The fish bone diagram as all the 5 key areas and the details of each area is shown in the below diagram.

Cause and effect diagram with level of details:


By using the techniques mentioned above, the root cause of the issue can be indentified in a systematic way, and can be taken further to resolve the issue, it is where the RCA plays a vital role.

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