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1. What is the purpose of the Requirement Traceability Matrix?

Requirement traceability matrix (RTM) have requirements or features given by client or stakeholder. RTM table generally written by the business analyst.

Purpose of Requirement traceability matrix:
To ensure that all requirement/feature given by client are tested and validated. This ensures that no requirement/feature is unchecked during testing phase. It helps to identify and maintain the status of the requirements and deliverables.

It captures all the requirements/features proposed by client in a single document. It helps in the process of software development lifecycle. The requirements are decided into different scenarios and then test cases are created. We use RTM to track these test cases as per requirements.

Types of traceability matrix:
1) Forward RTM: It is used to track the requirements to test cases. It ensures that every requirement is properly tested.
Mapping from Requirement to Test cases.

2) Backward RTM: Create Backward RTM by matching the test cases with the requirements. It helps to avoid scope creep.
Mapping from Test cases to requirement.

3) Bidirectional RTM:
It is combination of forward and Backward RTM in one document. It establishes that each requirement has corresponding test cases.

Advantages: 1) RTM covers 100% test Details.

2) It throws light on the missing documents of the Project.

3) It throws light on the overall defects and their current position.

4) It will accelerate release cycles.

5) Beneficial at the time of audit process.

Steps in making RTM:
1)Gather all requirements document: Functional requirement document, Technical requirement document
Business requirement document

2)Use an Excel spreadsheet:
Things included in RTM Table column:
Requirement ID
Requirement Name
Requirement description
Design, development, testing, validation and User acceptance testing status

3) Write all requirements in Requirement Traceability Matrix Excel spreadsheet.

4) Update RTM’S data as changes occur at any stage of the Software Development Lifecycle.

Industry that produces the software and hardware can use requirement traceability matrix.
RTM is used in Enterprise analysis, risk analysis, scope management, time management, communication between stakeholders management, quality of project management.
Healthcare, equipment manufacturer, and  Automobile organization use RTM to eliminate errors. It increases the overall efficiency of project development. RTM helps in decision making. RTM links the requirement given by client, test cases, defects, impacts of changes, and status. In scrum it is used to write user stories.
RTM helps in making wireframes, prototypes, and designing documents. It is high level matrix. RTM is easy to make. We can make RTM using Business requirements, Functional requirement, and Non-functional requirements.

Business Requirements: High level statement of goals. It is the objective of the organization. It describes about the whole organizations goal, not as per separate stakeholder.

Functional Requirements: It describes the behavior of requirement or feature.

Non-Functional Requirement: It describes about the environmental condition. It describes the operation capability of feature of system. In scrum we add Non-Functional Requirements to the definition of done (checklist) document.

RTM helps the testing team to retest any feature of project that is not tested properly. It helps to eliminate the errors in the delivery of project.

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