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1. What is the purpose of the Requirement Traceability Matrix?

Answer: Requirement Traceability Matrix is a method through which the project is divided into small pieces so that it can be tracked and developed easily. Requirement traceability matrix(RTM) is a document that maps and traces user requirement in test cases. As a business analyst one of the key responsibilities is to keep the track of the requirement and ensure that no requirement is missed. It is in this context that requirement traceability matrix is critical to fulfill this responsibility of a business analyst. Business Analyst uses RTM for mapping and tracking project managements to the particular test cases and possible defects. By mapping test cases back to requirement, test coverage is improved. The requirement traceability matrix helps in identifying any deviation from the scope. The deviation from the scope can be identified and addressed during the testing phase. A requirement traceability matrix can be used in any industry that involves hardware production or software development. There are 3 types of requirement traceability matrix which are as follows-
• Forward Traceability- Here the test cases are mapped according to the requirements. All the requirements are tested is ensured in this RTM.
• Backward or Reverse Traceability- In this requirements are mapped according to test cases.
• Bidirectional Traceability- In this RTM, it tracks the requirement forward by looking at the deliverables and backward by examining the requirements. This matrix is important when there is a constant change in requirements.
There are no guidelines that define what parameters are included in the requirement traceability matrix. However the following parameters will assist to trace requirement properly
• Requirement ID
• Requirement Name
• Requirement Type and Description
• Priority
• Design
• Test case with status
Advantages of Requirements Traceability Matrix:
1. Identify Extra Requirements- A requirement traceability matrix connects the requirements to artifact, it gives an idea in case of any missed requirements and identifies if any requirements being developed is not requested by any stakeholder.
2. Streamlines the testing process- Traceability helps identify requirements that must be tested. High priority requirements along with medium and low level requirements will be traced to ensure they are tested thoroughly.
3. Better Change Management- In case of change request, traceability will show how the change will take place before it is implemented.
4. Helps prioritize defects- Prioritization become difficult in case there is too many defects backlog. In such a scenario mapping defect to requirement helps to resolve defect efficiently.
5. Guaranteeing Project Success- Traceability helps in controlling costs and preventing project delays as unnecessary requirements are avoided. Traceability provides a projection of resources to be deployed and budget available to complete project.
6. Ease of Compliance and Audit- A proper requirement traceability matrix will help prove compliance faster, and without fear, organizations can get the project plans for the audits.
In a situation were the project contains too many defects, a requirement traceability matrix will help in prioritizing the defects that needs corrected in order of priority. To conclude we can say that an accurate requirement traceability matrix is essential to ensure the project’s success.

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